Lærere: Peter Hemmersam og Halvor Ellefsen
Oppgaven: Gjennom teoretiske studier, samt designprosjekter vil kurset sette et kritisk lys på hvordan bærekraft-spørsmålet håndteres i kontemporær urbanisme. Med tre forskjellige sites i tre forskjellige land vil studentene konseptualisere og diskutere metoder og målsettinger innen sustainable urban design.
Gruppearbeid med Nicole Martin
Planning as sustainability tool. Planning is again back on the agenda as the mechanism for solving sustainability targets. Mainly through urban compaction, governments hope to reach sustainability targets by reducing the dependence on automotive travel, whilst simultaneously reducing the general consumption of space and green field sites. For the first time in a long time, urban planning and form has become a major political issue. Not since the 1960’s has the general perception existed that planning can be done, and should be done on such a big scale where, in many cases, policy has actually over taken academic research in it support for the compact city (Breheny, 13).
Density + context. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is the all encompassing city wide stamp-like planning strategy used by municipalities and planners as the sustainability tool to reduce the dependence on automobiles and the encroachment of car dependent societies onto outer city greenfield sites. Achieved through the implementation of target densities located within 10 mintue walk from a transit node, the result is a stamp like standised strategy, intented to be applied in all cities. But like a stamp, transit oriented development presumes a single, ideal world: an ideal world comprised of ideal densities and mixed use urban forms. Inextricably
linked to the New Urbanist ideals, TOD’s pre-requisites are somehow reminiscent of the recipes hand written by CIAM in the 1960’s in its all encompassing and solution oriented manner. However, what this stamp lacks to identify is the various forms and densities within existing urban areas. Extricate Transit Oriented Development from the New Urbanism movement, and it has the capacity to achieve ‘walkable neighborhoods’ without necessarily relying on specified urban forms and densities. As Mike Jenks stated in his book, The compact city: A sustainable urban form?, “The important difference of today’s urban ideals is the implementation and acknowledgement of context, variety and democracy. The search for the ultimate sustainable urban form perhaps now needs to be reoriented to the search for a number of sustainable urban forms which respond to the variety of existing settlement patterns and contexts” (121?). Hence we focus not on what is the ultimate sustainable urban form, but rather on contextual densification typologies, made within the framework of the transit oriented model.
Where do you choose to live? The transit oriented development model lies central to the discussion of centralization versus decentralization (centralization being the compact city model, and decentralization the disperse city). Transit oriented development is the optima of the centrists tool- as it insists on densification and urban compaction, but the potential of the multi-nodal system is that it has the potential for a decentralized centralization. Many still doubt the full benefits of the compact city model, and besides from general skepticism regard the proof in the pudding, the only main counter argument to the compact city, is simply the fact that people prefer to live in the suburbs. A remnant not only from post-industrial times, but also from the postwar period where the motor vehicle enabled the wealthy to establish themselves in new, out of city areas surrounded by parks and more wealthy people. 100 years ago Ebenzier Howard wrote ‘town or country which willyou choose’ and in its most primitive form, this preferential debate of densities lives on, even though the overall form of cities has obviously morphed through modernity. Coined the father of the ‘eco-community’, he looked for the marriage between the town and the country through a series of interconnected nodes, acknowledging that
both the town and the country had desirable characteristics that should be captured to entail the utopian city. And it is this same characterizes that can be developed through multi-nodal transit oriented development- something that is somehow a compromise between the centrists and the decentrists. Hence, this project will investigate the potentials of Transit Oriented Development when it extricated from its typified form, highlighting is
capacity to become a part of the compromise between the centrists and the decentrists.
Town and country 2.0. Although we acknowledge the Howards definition of town, country and town and county, it is important to define the terms as they exist in their contemporary. We choose to define the town,
country and of town and country by their magnet pull. As it is these magnet pulls that are the reason people choose to settle, or to move between the different urban forms. TOWN: The town is the generator of money.Fueled by proximity to services and communication, maximum density is the key to businesses access to the workforce and the services it needs to operate at maximum efficiency. People live in the city because they crave the proximity to its life. People commute to the city because they need its life for either business, shopping or entertainment. The definition of Country, remains the same, fresh air and nature are its magnets, but its proximity to town and purity is what is at stake. All borders have been broken, but pockets of pure country are crucial if it is even to remain an element to experience. Town and country is now defined as the suburbs, it is still the option of choice for most families lifestyle and is remains defined by the proximity to a private gardens or large outdoor spaces. People who live there most often move by car. Land is generally cheaper than the city and hence the suburb is also where you find the big shed programs. For the people who live in the suburbs, these places become their centers. For those who live in the city, these sheds are the Saturday outing spaces, the Maxbo’s, IKEA and other place mostly visited by car. Hence the suburb is also defined by the car and the road. There is an absolute co-dependence
of these three typologies of the city, meaning none can or should operate entirely without the other. Only more important to the nodes themselves is the connection between them. Proximity and the relationship between
these nodes and the location of them along the transit structure is crucial in the reduction of automobile dependency by the people who move between them Gains? Does urban compaction deliver the gains the politicians believe it will? We believe it will have some impact, but possibly not without society choosing to make the changes along with the politicians. In urban compact societies, low density will always exist as an
option, but the actual density will increase. This is inevitable. In this sense, in democratic societies, where choices are open, desired changes in lifestyle will be a matter of education, enablement and persuasion. Few are likely to accept changes unless there is an alternative that is as good or better quality of life, or unless there are good and persuasive reasons to do so. The compact city needs to provide an environment where people will want to live, and which provides the services, facilities and transport to encourage them to change to more ecologically sustainable lifestyles, particularly in relation to the car. Solutions will need to take on board the qualities of a certain locality. Understanding differences and responding to them is a key to providing solutions that have the potential for success (Jenks).
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
DIPLOM – ET NYTT TAKLANDSKAP
Veileder: Lars Haukeland
Tomt: Kvartalet vis a vis domkirken. Avgrenset av Karl Johans gate, Prinsens gate,
Lærere: Knut Hjeltnes, Nils Ole Bae Brandtzæg, Sieglinde Muribø
Oppgaven: Retreat er et begrep som er innarbeidet for
DIPLOM – MODELLBILDER
Bilder av de fysiske presentasjonsmodellene mine. Modellene er i målestokk 1:200 og 1:100
Lærere: Thordis Arrhenius, Bård Helland, Kolbjørn Nesje Nybø
Transformasjon av eksisterende struktur til
Lærere: Peter Hemmersam og Halvor Ellefsen
Oppgaven: Gjennom teoretiske studier, samt designprosjekter vil kurset sette
Lærere: Lars Haukeland
Oppgaven: Studiokurset tar utgangspunkt i det aktuelle byggeprogrammet for Nasjonalmuseet og en